Senin, 14 Mei 2012

Toward Prosperity

Program called 'Mosque Gaharu' was launched nationally by the Forestry Minister, Malam Sambat Kaban, at Masjid Al-Fauzien, Depok, 14 September 2008. Development of sandalwood cultivation in the mosques is initiated by the DMI in Depok and Research Centre of Applied Geography (PPGT-Faculty) University of Indonesia (UI).
Cultivation begins from Depok area and will be developed in various other regions of Indonesia through the Indonesia Cooperative Economic Empowerment mosque.
Sandalwood cultivation to anticipate this kind of extinction timber in Indonesia. Aloes extinction caused mainly by two things.
First, aloes wood harvesting techniques and there is no certainty whether or not the resin in the wood of aloes.
Second, because the demand is always high eaglewood naturally result in reduced supply. Agarwood is generally found in forests in the forest region of Papua, Borneo, Halmahera, NTB, NTT, and Sumate
Economic value
Aloe wood has a high economic value. There are six classifications of aloes wood prices - depending on the quality and age of gaharu resin produced - the cheapest price from Rp 100,000 per kilogram up to Rp30 million per kilogram. Gaharu resin demand is increasing every year. Countries that import a lot of aloes is India China, Japan, Saudi Arabia and the United States.
Research Center for Applied Geography (PPGT) University of Indonesia to develop technologies gaharu seedlings through tissue culture technology. The institute is also developing technologies for the serum injected into the tree aloes.
Engineering pattern describes as isokulasi fungus is made after a 5-year-old aloe. Mold injection technique into the wood of aloes is so that the tree is infected and likely to produce resin after one to three years later.
Agarwood can be cultivated in the lowland area with a height of not more than 750 meters from the tropical sea. If the area can grow hardwood trees such as rambutan, mango, jackfruit, durian, and the like, the wood of aloes will grow well when it is developed on the land.
DMI Depok City will cooperate with other mosques in Indonesia for the cultivation of aloes. In addition to having economic value, the program also deals with the greening of the environment and improve water infiltration to the life of the community.
Pemberdayakan aloe cultivation is part of economic prosperity of the mosque in an effort to improve the welfare of the mosque and surrounding communities. In fact, when berkembangan well, farming can be a leading agribusiness Agarwood Indonesia, but because the market is quite large, also wood Agarwood has entered in a state endangered species.
"Eaglewood Mosque" is one of the DMI program in Depok. Other economic development based on the mosque, including the construction of mini-networks, the establishment of Islamic financial institutions (Baitul Maal wattamwil-BMT), and other economic activities.
Economic activity of this mosque will be integrated through a system of Internet-based information technology, economic institutions so that the mosque can communicate, interact, and transact. The concept of economic development networks mosque called "Mosque Incorporated" This could be the economic power of the people.
With these networks, the products of micro and small communities can be marketed more widely, in addition to the network of mosques economy will have greater bargaining power with manufacturers so as to obtain a product with a cheaper price.
While BMT for financial institutions, through networking, among others, can do a transaction-a kind of "clearing" between BMT. Islamic microfinance institutions can be integrated perbankans yariah channeling agent in Indonesia because it has a wide range.
With the economic development of the mosque, the mosque except to prosper, will also be able to create jobs, grow the independent entrepreneur, entrepreneurs, and increase income people, which means it can improve the welfare of the people of Indonesia.
So, let's start kesejahteaan improvement of society through the economic approach to the mosque. Start of what can be done first. This is the solution to our nation's problems.
(Mustafa Edwin Nasution, Ph.D,)

Quick Tips Agarwood Harvest

Eaglewood died after a year of injected fungi. He is not guilty, but had to hurt so fragrant pig appear immediately. Aquilaria malaccensis aloes stem minimum 5-year-old drilled a spiral. That is, each end of the first areas to be continuous with the circular saw a saw a second field. So on. That's a given field of sawn fungi.
A year after the injection of pig can already be harvested. Previous techniques, inter-field saws are not interconnected. The interval between the field of about 10 cm and 2-3 years to reap the pig.
Modification of the fungal delivery technology developed by Drs Yana Sumarna MSi, researchers Research and Development Center for Forest and Nature Conservation, Bogor.He gives the fungus Fusarium spp on each stem aloes. A year later, he was able to harvest 10 kg of pig gaharu trees 6 years. This method is more effective than older techniques because of the spiral technique capable of withstanding the trees still standing strong despite high wind. Prepare the necessary tools: wood drill to drill a hole diameter of 13 mm for rods, saws, trepanning place markers as markers, gauges, cotton, spatula, tweezers, alcohol 70%, candles and soft pig seeds of the fungus.
The workmanship is simple.
A. A fungal inoculant to assist in the formation of a pig. Some examples are dense fungus Diplodia sp, Phytium sp, Fusarium sp, Aspergillus sp, sp Lasiodiplodia, Libertela sp, Trichoderma sp, Scytalidium sp, and Thielaviopsis sp. Fungus was propagated by mixing one tablespoon of mushrooms and 100 grams of waste sawdust aloes. Save one month in a sealed bottle.
2. Make a mark on the skin layer of 10 cm diameter tree with a marker to determine the area of ​​drilling. The lower drilling point, 20 cm from the soil surface. Create another drilling point on it by shifting toward sejau horizontal to vertical 10 cm and 10 cm. In the same way to make some subsequent point after being linked to form a spiral line.
3. Use a generator to power the drill bit. Make a hole as deep as 1/3 the diameter of the stem follows the spiral line of the drilling area.
4. Clean the drill holes with a washed cotton 70% alcohol to prevent infection with other microbes.
5. Enter the fungus into the hole by using a spatula. Filling up the hole to meet the skin's surface.
6. Close the holes have been filled with wax and fungus so that no contaminants. To prevent water from seeping, waxy surface also closed plastic tape.
7. Check the success of the injection after one month. Open plaster and wax.Successful inoculation of the fungus if the black bars. After that make up the skin incision below the peeling. This makes it easy to open and close when the next check.
8. One year later gaharu harvested. To increase success, plantersadded compound stressors. With so weakened aloes durability, easy to breed fungus, and the pig is more quickly formed.

Sabtu, 12 Mei 2012


Fusarium inoculation into the tissues of the tree is actually the bacteria that cause disease. Therefore it against a tree aloes produce resin called fitoaleksin so do not spread germs to other tree tissues. Over time, the resin was hardened at the point of xylem and phloem vessels corner - tree organ which distributes food browned and fragrant when burned.
Given the type isolate the disease-forming aloes will vary according to climatic and environmental conditions, the inoculant providers need to do isolation type of diseases that produce gaharu prospected. Isolation was carried out on natural aloe plant that was in the forest area surrounding the development. To that end, should begin with the field observations to study aspects of aloes that grow naturally and to isolate and identify the type of disease from the infected tree.In order to successfully develop the inoculant-forming aloes, specific techniques are required. For this, the indispensable role of local government agencies or institutions, universities, private entrepreneurs and investors or local area as the perpetrators of inoculant production. The stages of development techniques inoculant as follows:
• Choose natural aloe which had been infected with the disease-forming microbes aloes.• Take a piece of branch or peeling aloe tree selected. Peeling pieces of branches or stems is called "preparations".• Take it to the laboratory preparation and effort so that its temperature and humidity is maintained by means incorporated in the ice box.• Develop and spores from preparations branch or trunk is in the media in order to identify microbial species as a pure culture.• Develop spores and mycelium of pure cultures into the dense media such as sawdust and tree aloes or in liquid medium containing ang has macro and micro elements as the energy of life.• Enter the spores into the media culture incubator and incubator temperature and humidity conditioning of breeding is in optimal condition, the temperature of 24 - 32c and 80% humidity. Allow approximately 1-2 months.• Place the spores are sdah bred into a container glass bottles, plastic bottles, or bottles of infusion used.• Store the bottle in the freezer incubator. This inoculant is ready inoculated into the aloe plant. Mechanical inoculation with inoculant of aloe will vary according to the form inokulannya. In the implementation of the aloe penginokulasian this, be aware of age and trunk diameter. Minimum limit on the inoculation of a tree can be characterized by flowering trees. Usually the age of the plant is about 4-5 years or have reached a trunk diameter of 8-10 cm. Reviewed following inoculation technique using solid and liquid inoculants.

Inoculation with solid inoculants.Aloe inoculation technique using solid inoculant carried in the following way:
• Make a hole in the stem wood of aloes to use a drill. Borehole diameter of about 0.8 to 10 mm. Optimal depth of drilling is to be adjusted with stem diameter, typically about 5 cm. Each rod made a lot of holes spaced drill holes about 20 cm.• Clean hands of perpetrators of inoculation with water until clean and rinsed with alcohol before the inoculation.• Enter a dense inoculation into each hole. Adjusted by the amount of inoculant hole depth. As a rule, income is made up holes filled with the inoculant. In order for revenues to be easy, use a piece of wood or bamboo whose size matches the size of the hole diameter.• Cover any holes that have been given mnghindari inoculant for the entry of water into the hole. Hole closure was done with wooden pegs aloes. Closure can be done with "lily-night"
Inoculated with liquid inoculant.Inoculation technique using liquid inoculants carried in the following way:• Perform the drilling at the base of the tree trunk with his side down. Drilling depth adapted to the tree trunk diameter, usually 1/3 the diameter of the rod. While the drill bit is used together with the IV measuring approximately 0.5 cm. Infusion hose is usually supplied producers inoculant inoculant at time of purchase. However, if not available, the infusion tube can be provided by the farmers themselves.• Enter the IV that is on the bottle of liquid inoculant into the hole.• Adjust the amount of flow of the liquid inoculant. Stop the flow of fluid infusion when the inoculant was out of the hole.• Close the hose around the edges of the infusion by using the "candle night".• Repeat setting the entry flow of fluid infusion into the hole every 1-2 days, depending on the state of the fluid in the hole. Flow arrangement made when a hole is no longer fluid inoculation.• Implement this penginokulasian liquid inoculant in the bottle until the infusion is finished. Penginokulasian repeated inoculation with a new bottle, if there are no signs of physical and physiological death.

Special Tree : Agarwood

Indonesia is the world's largest manufacturer of aloe with best quality. Agarwood-producing trees sapwood (the deepest part of the aloe tree in the colors black, dark brown, reddish brown with a strong fragrance) the best that is in accordance with the conditions of natural production in Indonesia may already be extinct. He was left with trees that have a higher susceptibility properties.
Agarwood is a commodity of elite non-timber forest products that are currently in demand by consumers both in and outside the country. Aloes or Agarwood, aleawood, eaglewood and jinkoh have high sales value. The scarcity of trees in natural forests gaharu trade led to the origin of all species of aloes and Grynops Aqularia be set in the CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) and restricted exports in the quota.
Currently, Indonesia is positioned to take an active role in saving the production of agarwood by diverting production from natural aloe aloes made. Thus in the future, Indonesia will enter the era of the cultivation of aloes, or take a more popular word aloes "non-CITES quota".
With the theme "Towards a Sustainable Agarwood Production in Indonesia", School of Forestry and Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences in cooperation with the Ministry of Forestry IPB RI and supported by Sinarmas Forestry, Perhutani, the International Timber Trade Organization, Asgarin and held a National Seminar on Biodiversity Foundation I Eaglewood at IPB International Convention Center (12/11). This theme is taken as an expression of public concern observers of aloe to the demands of the world the importance of sustainable production of gaharu in Indonesia.
Attending the event, Minister of Forestry, Zulkifli Hasan, SE, MM, for the opening ceremony, accompanied by the Vice Chancellor of Academic and Student Affairs areas of IPB, Prof.Dr.Ir. Yonny Koesmaryono, Dean of the Faculty of Forestry, Dr. Hendrayanto, Dean of the Faculty of Mathematics IPB, Dr. Hasim, officials from the Ministry of Forestry of Indonesia, researchers, and observers of aloes Indonesia.
Forestry Minister says Indonesia's natural wealth should we preserve as much as possible for the prosperity of the people. "So far, the results from the production of aloe aloes are always detrimental to farmers. Eg from the sale of 40% aloe to owners of capital, 20% for licensing, production processes and the rest to the farmers. It will not prosper the people, "he added.
Considering the natural collecting gaharu is a resident of residents around the forest, then the production system to be developed should be community-based forest edge. Therefore the area of ​​governance that provide incentives for communities to consider the forest edge.
"Trees are very large market aloes. Containing aloe "mastic" and when burned release a distinctive aroma can be processed into aloes, souvenirs, incense and incense makmul, perfume, medicine and for cosmetic ingredients. Countries with large populations like China, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Thailand is the aloe market. So that should be conserved and that aloes should develop experts from IPB, "he said when interviewed.Since 2003, agarwood export quota declining steadily to about 125 tons / year for each species. Within this quota restrictions, production can only meet about 10-20% of market demand, so the market opportunity is still open.
Menhut added to maintain the sustainability of our environment as well as exports, but must be conserved, aloes also be produced artificially in aloe cultivation. Gaharu trees have been planted more than 1750 ha in Indonesia and this became the basis of capital towards the sustainable production of agarwood in Indonesia.Meanwhile, production of pig aloes involving microorganisms (ie, a type of fungus fusarium and acremonium). Mechanism of formation of oleo resin (mastic) gaharu is the result of interactions between trees and microorganisms before.
With the process of cultivation, mushroom farmers inject into the aloe tree when he was stepped on five years. Of the fungus infection, aloe take the fight to remove oleo resin compound.
One kilogram pig aloes with the best quality sold for 30 million dollars. Agarwood Aquilaria malaccensis species endemic area in Sumatra (10 trees / ha) and Kalimantan (9 trees / ha). For this type of Aquilaria filarial endemic area in Papua (60 trees / ha), Maluku (30 trees / ha) and Sulawesi (7 trees / ha). And for the type sp Gyrinops endemic area in West Nusa Tenggara (8 trees / ha) and NTT (7 trees / ha).